How are men affected by hypogonadism and how important is it to treat hypogonadism?
|Obesity||Up to 79% of obese men have hypogonadism.1|
|Diabetes||Up to 45-50% of men with type 2 diabetes have hypogonadism.2,3|
|Metabolic syndrome||Up to 35% of men with the metabolic syndrome have hypogonadism.4-6|
|Chronic diseases||Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, liver or kidney disease, and rheumatoid arthritis may be risk factors for low testosterone.
In some instances it is not clear whether the chronic illness is a cause or a consequence of low testosterone. It is likely that the causal relationship is bi-directional.
|Normal aging||Testosterone levels decline with age in most men.
* After the age of 40 years:
|Medications||Statins11-13 (which are widely prescribed for dyslipidemia), glucocorticoid medications14,15 and opioid treatment16-18 for chronic pain are well known medications that reduce testosterone levels and may precipitate hypogonadism.|
|Pituitary disorders||Pituitary dysfunction can impair the release of LH and FSH, which are hormones that affect normal testosterone and sperm production, respectively.19,20|
|Cancer and cancer treatment||Cancer of the testes or pituitary tumors can lead to low testosterone production.
Chemotherapy or radiation therapy can also interfere with testosterone production.19,20
|Injury to the testes||Damage to testes can cause reduced testosterone production.19,20|
|Hemochromatosis||A genetic disorder causing the body to absorb too much iron from the diet) can result in the deposition of iron in various body organs, including the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes.
It is now recognized as a common disorder and 1 in 200 people of northern Europe may be at risk of developing iron overload.20
|HIV/AIDS||The HIV virus can cause low levels of testosterone by affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes.19,20|
|Klinefelter’s syndrome||A genetic deficiency in testosterone production. Affects between 1 in 500 and 1 in 1000 men.19,20|
|Hypothalamic disorder||Abnormal development of the hypothalamus and is a risk factor for low testosterone (a.k.a. Kallmann's syndrome).19,20|
|Mumps orchitis||A mumps infection that involves the testes as well as the saliva glands may result in long-term damage affecting testosterone production if it occurs during adolescence or adulthood.19,20|
|Undescended testes||Failure of one or both of the testes to descend at birth (which occurs in approximately 1 in 4 boys born prematurely and 1 in 20 boys born at term) may lead to a failure of the testes to develop properly if the condition does not correct itself naturally within the first year of life or if not corrected in early childhood.19,20|